2015 First Spouse Gold Coins

The United States Mint has unveiled the design selections for the 2015 First Spouse Gold Coins. These coins will honor Elizabeth Truman, Mamie Eisenhower, Jacqueline Kennedy, and Claudia “Lady Bird” Johnson, the spouses of the 33rd to 36th Presidents of the United States of America.

Initially, the Mint had prepared from five to eight different design candidates for the obverse and reverse of each coin. All of the design candidate images can be viewed here. The candidates were reviewed by the Commission of Fine Arts (CFA) and Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee (CCAC), who each provided their recommendations and feedback. Coverage of the CFA and CCAC’s reviews can be found here and here.

The final design selections shown below were selected under the authority of the Secretary of the Treasury.

2015 Bess Truman First Spouse Coin

The Bess Truman First Spouse Gold Coin features an obverse portrait designed by Joel Iskowitz and engraved by Phebe Hemphill. The reverse, which was designed by Joel Iskowitz and engraved by Charles Vickers, features a locomotive wheel moving along a railroad track in order to represent Mrs. Truman’s support for her husband during his 1948 whistle stop campaign trip for re-election.

The design selections match the recommendations of the CCAC. The CFA had recommended a different portrait and a reverse design depicting an engine reminiscent of 1940’s locomotives to represent the whistle stop campaign trip.

mamie-eisenhower

The Mamie Eisenhower First Spouse Gold Coin features a portrait designed by Richard Masters and engraved by Joseph Menna. The reverse design features a woman’s hand holding a political campaign button with the slogan “I Like Mamie.” This refers to her popularity as First Lady, involvement in her husband’s campaign, and the popular campaign slogan “I Like Ike.” The reverse was designed by Barbara Fox and engraved by Renata Gordon.

Both the CFA and CCAC had recommended the selected obverse design. The selected reverse design matched the recommendation of the CFA. For the reverse, the CCAC had recommended an alternate design showing the clasped hands of Mamie and Dwight Eisenhower, a globe, five stars across the top, and a DC-54 airplane.

Jacqueline Kennedy First Spouse Coin

The Jacqueline Kennedy First Spouse Coin features an obverse portrait designed by Susan Gamble and engraved by Phebe Hemphill. The reverse features an image of the saucer magnolia that Mrs. Kennedy chose to be planted in the White House garden and near the eternal flame at her husband’s grave at Arlington National Cemetery. The petals stretch across the globe, with its tips connecting the points of some of her most notable diplomatic visits. The reverse was designed by Benjamin Sowards and engraved by Jim Licaretz.

Both the CFA and CCAC had recommended the selected obverse design. The CCAC had recommended the selected reverse design, while the CFA had offered support for a theme of the arts and another alternative featuring an image of the First Lady with her son John on the White House lawn.

Lady Bird Johnson First Spouse Coin

The Lady Bird Johnson First Spouse Gold Coin features a portrait designed by Linda Fox and engraved by Michael Gaudioso. The reverse, which was designed by Chris Costello and engraved by Renata Gordon, features a depiction of the Jefferson Memorial, Washington Monument, and flowers to represent Mrs. Johnson’s efforts in the beautification and conservation of America.

The CCAC had recommended the selected obverse and reverse designs. The CFA had preferred a different obverse design, but with the hair style shown in the selected design. The CFA did support the selected reverse design.

Release dates for the 2015 First Spouse Gold Coins have been indicated on the US Mint’s website as 4/16/2015 for Bess Truman, 5/7/2015 for Mamie Eisenhower, 6/2015 for Jacqueline Kennedy, and 8/2015 for Lady Bird Johnson. The US Mint previously indicated maximum mintages of 10,000 for each coin with the exception of the Jacqueline Kennedy Coin, which will carry a higher mintage of 30,000 pieces.

Facebook Twitter Email

Comments

  1. Ends in Error says

    That Jackie Kennedy Coin is outright beautiful. I want both a Proof and a BU for sure. Could care less about price appreciation . It’s just a nice image.

  2. John c says

    I like the obv of the Kennedy, but not too fond of the rev though. Too bad the mintage is going to be 30k on these. If they kept the mintage low on these it would of given this series a nice little boost. 2014 was a tough year on the spouse series as interest fell to an all time low. I would expect from here on out the mintages will be higher and 2014 will be locked as the keys across the board. I think the Eleanor Roosevelt’s will be the most expensive of the series when all is said and done. I think the Lou Hoover unc will be the key to the whole series, but won’t carry the premium that the Roosevelt will carry because of Roosevelt’s popularity and because the Hoover coin is extremely ugly, she looks like a guy. I also think they will keep the coins for sale through 2015 and the mintage will be very close to the other 2014 spouse coins so even if it is the key to the series it probably End up with a mintage somewhere between 1800 and 1950.

  3. gary says

    Jackie’s portrait is great!
    The skunk cabbage on a world map doesn’t move me though.

  4. Brad says

    Let’s hope the Mint doesn’t experience any “metal flow problems” with these designs. We certainly don’t have much lead-time if the Bess Truman coins are to go on sale in only a month!

    Maybe the potential higher mintage of the Kennedy coin will be a blessing in disguise. If there’s enough of those floating around out there, maybe people who weren’t even aware the series existed will see them and look into acquiring past issues. We all know there just aren’t very many of some of those coins to be had. Maybe that will drive some prices up.

    The 2014’s will very likely mark the series mintage lows, as John C said above. It’s just too bad the Mint refuses to call anything “sold out” anymore, except for those products they end sales of themselves on a set date.

  5. rpk says

    I’d wait until you see the actual coin before deciding to buy. They haven’t done a very good job of transferring the artwork to the coin recently. First term Frances Cleveland was a big disappointment, and 3 of the 4 2015 presidential dollars look worse on the coin than they did on the original pictures. LBJ looks more like Robert Byrd. The only reason I couldn’t bring myself to buy the low mintage Eleanor Roosevelt FS coins is that the portrait doesn’t even remind me of her.

  6. Gary not Dave says

    I haven’t purchased any First Spouse coins yet….but I plan on getting the Jackie…I imagine the mintage of this coin will be the highest of any…lets hope gold prices stay down or drop more.

  7. fmtransmitter says

    Question: I decided to keep the P puck from Nebraska, for what? The simple fact that is represents the basics of life and I like the football team, they were the bomb diggity back in the day! So I want the LESPS, was gonna send the puck back and get it. What would you all do? I am not seeing much difference mintage wise for the two and puck has more PM in it?>?? Sincerely, confused

  8. fmtransmitter says

    On Topic: I agree, this will be a high demand coin, the Jackie FS…I don’t buy gold, but if I did, it would be the Jackie O FS coin..Cheers from the most interesting man in the world…

  9. fmtransmitter says

    I do enjoy learning about the things that the first spouses have done in these write ups…If you look at the evil one on Scandal, I wonder who really runs the country behind closed bedroom doors…Ha

  10. cagcrisp says

    Like Sith, the Jackie Kennedy will be my First and Only FS coin…

    May or May Not get several to pair up with the Gold JFK’s that I have…With a 1/2 oz. vs. 3/4 oz. and the price of Gold down, I will spend considerably less in 2015 vs. 2014…

    Got to plan what I will do in 2016 with all the Golds and Just how many of the Turkey pucks (First and Only of these Also) that I will Buy…

  11. Ends in Error says

    For those not wanting to spend for Gold on the Jackie Kennedy – be very quick on ordering the bronze medal.

  12. TMMSR0127 says

    This is going to be a remarkable collection for those who had the foresight, resources, conviction, faith and dedication to see it through to the end. I just cant imagine that after all these years, the complete collection is going to come down to in or several coins which have mintages sub 2k. Congratulations to those collectors who have stayed the course!

  13. says

    I don’t like 30,000 limit on Jackie O. ….way too much.

    The Mint did the same thing when they anticipated high demand for the Mary Todd Lincoln coin…mintage was raised to 20,000, yet it only sold 10,566 (proof & unc combined).

    I guess we’ll see, but I don’t think 30,000 will be sold. Now I realize that some will say (and it is a good point) that many that bought the Kennedy Gold will buy Jackie to complete a set….so if that is the case, then I guess 30,000 could be sold…..lol…..I realize as I was writing this I went from low sells to high sells…..sometimes I start typing and then think of other factors (Kennedy gold buyers wanting a set) as I go along.

  14. Ends in Error says

    Steve

    I have no wish for a Gold Kennedy as I feel it’s just not natural. But the Jacqueline Kennedy Coin is really a beauty . Compared to several recent Gold issues the 30,000 really isn’t too many. And nothing says the Mint will strike the entire 30,000 mintage all at one time.

  15. Jerry Diekmann says

    Sith – I agree with you and if I buy a gold proof, it will also be my only FS coin.

  16. Jerry Diekmann says

    Steve – To take liberties with a certain Vice President debate back in the late 1980s, “I knew Jackie Kennedy – Jackie Kennedy was a friend of mine. And you, Mary Todd Lincoln, are no Jackie Kennedy”! That’s the reason why Jackie will sell three times as many coins as Mary Todd Lincoln.

  17. Rick says

    Jackie O will likely sell seven times as many coins as E Roosevelt. That’ why ER MS 70 will be in demand in a couple of years.

  18. Jerry Diekmann says

    It’s not as bad as the one with Bush 43 flying in a fighter plane and landing on an ircraft carrier announcing that the Iraq War was over. That was in 2003, and now it’s 2015, and if you pick up any newspaper you will find that the war in Iraq is still going on. It’s one thing when a Presidential candidate acts stupid – that happens all the time, but it is really a sad state of affairs when a President acts like some stupid cowboy flyboy clown for all the world to see.

  19. Clark says

    All four 2015 FS are vast improvements. I don’t recall a more visually pleasing set since the inception of the series, although I agree that the actual coins rarely look like the artwork–even on larger bronze medals. I will buy them all for the gold & bronze FS collection, but I’m skeptical that Jackie O gold coins will sell out if the performance of JFK gold coins is any indication of collector demand.

    To me, the economics of the first spouse series is one of its more intriguing aspects and one that helped depress demand. When the series began in 2007, 1/4 oz gold FS coins were relatively affordable at ~$400 each. Not long after as pm prices soared, collecting ms and pf varieties, particularly during years featuring five spouses, was a $10,000 – $11,000 proposition–just for one year. Poor planning, execution, design and production quality at the Mint also took a big toll on demand. The result: low mintages across the series. Even now it’s difficult to assemble all gold FS coins minted. Only time will tell if the series will grow in numismatic value. I’m banking that it will, but not in my lifetime. IMO.

  20. Clark says

    Post Script: Thus far, the keys to the first spouse gold coin series IMHO are (in no particular order):

    All four liberty coins in unc and pf: (Jefferson, Jackson, VanBuren, Buchanan), Julia Tyler unc and pf, Lucy Hayes unc, Lucretia Garfield unc, Alice Paul unc, Eleanor Roosevelt unc. It’s still too early to predict Lou Hoover unc, but worth watching.

  21. A Bob says

    The Johnson reverse is the only nice reverse design of this year. It is great to see the Washington monument.
    I may get the proof kennedy so that I have a gold set with last years JFK issue.

  22. Bob R says

    I’m all in for Jackie, but for Lady Bird I agree with Larry, Tweedy Bird or maybe Daffy Duck with that beak.

  23. D Rittenhouse says

    @Clark,
    You have correctly identified the major contributor to poor sales of the First Spouse coins — Poor Execution by the Mint.

    We are already beyond the Ides of March and the Mint has just now FINALLY announced the designs selected for this year’s 2015 FS coins. The final design selections for the 2014 FS coins were not announced until MAY 2014: http://mintnewsblog.com/2014/05/2014-first-sposue-gold-coins/

    The Mint clearly doesn’t give an isht about these coins.

  24. D Rittenhouse says

    @Hawkster,
    I truly have NO idea where Dan Quayle lives. now. But I do know for certain that Lloyd Bentsen was the very last Democrat ever elected to the US Senate from Texas. 🙂

  25. Dave SW FL says

    Jackie is da bomb
    Reverse Eisenhower is a joke for coinage….truly circus coinage….Chucky Cheese does better!
    The date on the reverse of the Truman makes it appear to be a 1948 coin. Would have preferred the train reverse rather than just the wheel.
    Obverses definitely win over reverses in 2015.

    Do you suppose Michelle’s coin would have a vegetable garden on the reverse ( if they made it) ?

  26. Jerry Diekmann says

    Hawkster – Dan Quayle lives the good life in Paradise Valley, AZ. He made all the connections he needed when he was VP, and like a lot of other retired politicians, now sits on company boards. Pretty good bounceback from a guy who was humiliated in a debate and couldn’t spell “potato”. Although he was on the ticket with Bush 41, he is actually younger than Bush 43.

  27. Clark says

    D Rittenhouse–You are absolutely right. The FS series has been the Mint’s ugly (forgive the pun) stepchild offering year after year after year.

    I can’t even recall the number of times various FS collectors/commentors on this blog have aired our frustrations here…since MNB began and everyone commented under “anonymous” tags. From cramming the entire year’s FS coins into the end of the year, to sending out coins that should never have passed quality inspections, the Mint has shown its indifference to the series. In the end, it may have created one of the most rare and offensively expensive gold coin and medal series yet, but it’s been an unnecessarily painful journey.

  28. Sith says

    @D Rittenhouse

    I guess you can complain about the delay in selecting the FS coins, but at least they mostly kept to topic except for Alice Paul, and the liberty subset, with the liberty subset commanding a premium. The America the Beautiful (ATB) coins already have 2 Alice Paul coins. Fort Sumter is one of the most iconic images of the Civil War, and what want do they want to show for Fort Moultrie, Sergeant Jasper. The Saratoga coin is just showing the acceptance of the surrender sword. I guess this will help with the Mint’s lesson plans for teachers, but so much for America the Beautiful.

  29. D Rittenhouse says

    @Jerry Diekmann,
    Dan Quayle is the SS Minnow compared to Al Gore’s Titanic when it comes to skimming cream from the corporate rent-seekers. Gore’s seat on Apple’s board of directors is one of the nearly innumerable reasons why I shun Apple products. Gore’s carbon footprint dwarfs that of nearly every human, except fellow Nobel peace prize winner B. Hussein Obama.

  30. VaBeachSteve says

    @ Eric H ….. Just got an email notifying me my AGE’s have shipped

    ON Topic- count me in on all 4 spouses ( in proof) …. I can finally see the light at the end of the tunnel!! And kudos to those that collected both the proof & uncirc …. I barely squeezed by with just the proofs

  31. D Rittenhouse says

    @Sith
    My one issue with the America the Beautiful series so far is that the El Yunque National Forest coin. Puerto Rico is NOT one of the United States and is NOT America.

  32. ABC says

    My prediction for Michelle’s coin, if they decide to make it, will feature Barack’s birth certificate in the foreground with the outline of the country of Kenya in the background.

  33. Jerry Diekmann says

    Clark – with maybe just a couple of exceptions, like Eleanor and Jackie, I’m pretty suure the rest of the FS gold coins will never be worth much more than bullion – a Mint redux of the Franklin Mint “collections”. I still don’t know why this series was ever established, but the I didn’t think the Presidents series on coins was a very good idea either – half of them are not worth remembering.and some of them are associated with their mistakes and failures than anything positive they accomplished. When it comes to the FS, very few of them are worth remembering. This country didn’t need dollar coins or 1/2 ounce gold coins anyway.

  34. HiCal says

    Erik H says Has anybody’s AGEs shipped yet??? Anybody’s say “On Hold”???

    Mine shipped today and schedule for delivery on Thursday March 19.

  35. Jerry Diekmann says

    D. Rittenhouse – We may be of different political persuasions, but I do agree with your views on politicians sitting on corporate boards. Years ago, when I was first investing in the stock market, and I was a lot more idealistic and naive than I am now, I used to read through all the proxies and vote for most of the directors the company wanted (voting on a proxy is a lot like voting in Russia – the names have already been selected, and your only choice is to vote for the candidate, or not vote – you can’t vote against them. And many of the people running for directors were former politicians, cabinet secretaries, and the like. They were not there because of the expertise or knowledge of the company – it was just another payback between government and big business in an unholy relationship that is destructive to the rest of us. Finally I wised up, and so I NEVER vote proxies anymore. Saves me a lot of time and I don’t get my blood pressure up reading about political hacks sitting on boards. And they are both Republicans and Democrats. Sorry – getting off-topic, but the politics is what causes unnecessary coin programs, like dollar coins along with dollar bills, and FS coins, and nickels and cents that cost more to make than they are worth. And poor designs, like a girl on the Boy Scouts coin, the terrible design of the Girl Scouts and Civil Rights coins, etc. There – I did get back on topic – sort of.

  36. merryxmasmrscrooge says

    Jackie Kennedy looks like my mother when she was 65. Sanr hair same face. Everyone says my mother looks very young.

  37. whatajoke says

    “and nickels and cents that cost more to make than they are worth. ”

    A fool knows the price of everything, but the value of nothing.

  38. stephen m says

    jackie looks great. The Bess Truman reverse appears to be a locomotive engine wheel. That’s an interesting mechanical look to me. There won’t be a whole lot of complete collections of this series. Those that do manage to amass all will have a unique collection and I don’t think anyone will be disappointed with the future value of the series.

  39. says

    Wonder if the mint would consider doing a ‘First Bimbo’ series of coins?

    I should think several of our illustrious Presidents could have ‘First Bim.s’ multiple coins for their period of elected POTUS service.
    J.Diekmann
    D. Rittenhouse:
    Good points about the retired/rejected/loopy former politicos & certain extent retired military & civil service sitting on various corporate boards. Beyond the points you have brought up: To me, many of the boards have become a repository for political correctness, showmanship with an incestuous aroma… Appoint me on your board and I’ll appoint you to mine.

    I wonder if ever so quietly, ever so gently, the Eisenhower military industrial complex has prevailed?

    I have few in number of shares but I still ‘vote’. If for no other reason, to vent my aggrivation.

    Semper Fi

  40. Blair J. Tobler says

    @CasualCollector – My First Spouse medal set now shows processing, and they dinged my card! Looks like I may actually get it after all!

  41. Sith says

    D. Rittenhouse: Having grown up on the island I must disagree. It’s funny how many times I have to explain to otherwise well educated “mainlanders” that Puerto Ricans are US citizens by birth, and that we currently serve in the US military. We are also subject to Selective Service, and when it was in place the Draft. I myself have served, so you can imagine how frustrating it is to be told you are not really an American. I hate to have to tell you this but you are wrong Puerto Rico is part of the U.S. At least for now, saying otherwise is very ignorant on your part. On top of that you did not mention the other US terrorities such as Guam, or The Virgin Islands, so I must ask, is it just us Puerto Ricans you dislike?

  42. Sith says

    Oh and I forgot if you don’t like the fact that Puerto Rican’s living on the island don’t pay federal taxes, their is a easy remedy. Just talk to your congressional representative and ask him/her to give Puerto Rico congressional representation. This nation was founded on the principle of “No Taxation without Representation.”

  43. CasualCollector says

    @Blair J. Tobler
    Thanks for the update! My order is still “Backordered” and no ping on my credit card yet. But hopefully they get to my order today!

  44. says

    And we also have another character who tried running for president in ’84—Gary Hart. Mr. Hart made headlines by being photographed with “girlfriend” Donna Rice sitting on his lap while taking a boat ride. His eventual reward: In 2014, Hart was appointed special envoy to Ireland.

  45. Brad says

    Blair,

    Wow, mine too! I was thinking re-opening sales for the 2014 spouse medal sets must have been some sort of glitch, but I guess it really was legit! Cool.

  46. fmtransmitter says

    My concern with LESPS is sub par returned coins in these sets and no care and concern when removing from old lenses to transfer to this packaging. Would make a nice series to trtry and collect but not low mintage except for packaging. Not falling into the fluff and illusion game. Stay pure to the hobby.

  47. Sith says

    @fmtransmitter – I’m always surprised how many people pay a premium in order to fall “into the fluff and illusion game.”

  48. says

    Fm,
    Yeah, many coin buyers get caught up in the packaging. Isn’t “proprietary” packaging one of the main ways that the TV coin guys market and promote their offerings?
    Agreed, it’s not about the packaging; it’s about the coins.

  49. Dave SW FL says

    FM
    I can vouch for the poor quality of the LESPS – especially the Kennedy half. Never thought about the reject idea, but looking at my 2 sets, I would think you might be on to something !

  50. Jerry Diekmann says

    Sith – good points on Puerto Rico. The ATB series was meant as a continuation of the State quarter series (50 coins), followed by one year for U.S. territories (6 coins). Since the state quarters were issued in order of their admission to the union, it is natural that the territories would be the very last coins, since they are not states. Puerto Rico is a special case as it is a commonwealth, which seems to be somewhere between a territory and a state. In any case, when the ATB series was established, it was decided that the coins would be issued in the order of their first national park, or national monument, or other federal designation. The El Yunque park was established before some of the state parks, and so it was issued in its order of becoming a federal park. The other five territories will all have their turn over the remaining years of the series, and they will all have been minted before the last ATB quarter, which will represent the Tuskeegee Institute in Alabama. In all the territories, those who are born there are citizens of that territory and citizens of the United States of America, since all 50 states and all 6 territories are U.S. possessions.

  51. Jerry Diekmann says

    Silky – I will give you a list of the 19th century disasters and the 20th century disasters up to FDR’s election as the 32nd president in 1932. I will not go beyond that date so as to not to get into a war of words with those who may have political affiliations with presidents who have been in office over the last 80 years. Suffice it to say, there are several in that group too, but I will let historians sort thrm out. Anyway, here you go for the losers – they are in order by their years of service, not by their mistakes, misdeeds, and failures. Some people would include Andrew Jackson because of his genocide against native Americans, but I have not included him because he had a major effect on the future of the office of the President and its relationship with Congress, the Supreme Court, and big banks. I do think it is high time for him, though, to disappear off the $20.00 bill and be replaced by some newer leader. So, for what it’s woth, here is the list of losers:
    #8 – Martin Van Buren #17 – Andrew Johnson
    #10 – John Tyler #13 – Millard Fillmore
    #14 – Frankin Pierce #29 – Warren G. Harding
    #15 James Buchanan #31 – Herbert Hoover
    You can go on Google and check the different lists that have been compiled for the very worst Presidents, all the way through #43, . #9 – William Henry Harrison, and #20 James A. Garfield cannot be included in any good or bad list, since they served very short terms.

  52. Jerry Diekmann says

    Hawkster – maybe we’re getting a little OT, but we are talking about FS, and maybe possible FS, but Gary Hart is just like Bill Clinton, John Edwards, and Mark Stanford – another political hack who couldn’t keep his pants on. These guys are like cockroaches, just going through life ruining lives and they just never seem to die. As for Donna Rice, she is now 56, still pretty, and seems to have recovered and moved on with her life. Gary Hart, well he is 78 years old, and still feeding at the public trough as some emissary to Northern Ireland. Does this country really need an emissary to Northern Ireland anyway? What is he supposed to accomplish? Politicians, whether Republican or Democrat, take good care of each other – they serve on corporate boards or as “emissaries” to tiny insignificant countries, and the like. All paid for by American consumers and American taxpayers – they are all a bunch of parasites, IMO.

  53. Stefan says

    I would like to repost my comment from the coinupdates.com website:
    Hello Bilbo,
    I inquired via chat that the e.g. the 2013 FS will remain on sale till they are sold out even if this takes forever:
    Quote mint:
    “We still have that coin in stock, Once we have sold all that we have in stock we will no longer have that item minted. We recently made changes with the policy and the system. Information regarding this concern may be addressed by Michael White, Office of Public Affairs, at (202) 354-7222. The coins will remain available until we sell out.”
    So go ahead and buy the remaining 5000 pieces and they are sold out..how about that? If gold is going down to nothing we can have them for $50 only!!! Collecting US coins is not fun anymore, I am also looking for new opportunities.
    Greetings from Germany.

  54. Steven W. Knight says

    Thanks STEFAN 4-4-15 you are totally correct. Except for FDR Roosevelt which was interesting and just happened. Or maybe you were right and they only made 1,886 MS and 2,377 PF: this whole series will be the lowest minted coins in around 200 years. Gold will follow the price of inflation – which is merely the amount of printing of dollars or euros. It always has done that. Even when they added the base metals to inflate the prices of the precious metals via the coins.

  55. Steven W. Knight says

    If Hillary wins (and she might well might because of the demographics) it will be interesting because BILL (Wild Bill from the Oval office) might be on the back of the coin. But I digress. The gals are important and the opportunity many missed for so many reasons; will drive their little gray collecting cells in the brain NUTS.

    200 years of US Mint history and these are now in the lowest 10 to 20 coins ever minted. (Read FDRs!)

  56. says

    Does anyone know why the 2015 Bess Truman PCGS MS 70 First Strike coin is so high in price ?? I only see one on eBay For Sale currently.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *