Editorials on the Buffalo nickel, written shortly after its release

1913-5c-o-r-StxOn May 11, the Mint will release the 2017-W American Buffalo gold Proof coin. James Earle Fraser’s iconic Indian Head / Buffalo design debuted on the nickel five-cent piece in 1913, and today is a beloved classic.

As with so many designs, however, Fraser’s nickel did not receive universal approval. Numismatic author Roger Burdette quotes a New York Times editorial that said, “The new ‘nickel’ is a striking example of what a coin intended for wide circulation should not be … [it] is not pleasing to look at when new and shiny, and will be an abomination when old and dull.” Not only was the coin criticized for its aesthetic qualities, the concept of representing Liberty as something other than the traditional goddess figure was viewed askance.

Since these criticisms will sound familiar to collectors of modern Mint coinage, particularly the concern about Miss Liberty, I thought it would be interesting to exhume a few editorials published in the Numismatist back in 1913, to see what their authors had to say on the subject. (Readers will recognize a few other types of comments, as well.) Aside from the correction of a handful of typos introduced during optical-character-recognition scanning, the articles appear exactly as they were published.

“The New Five-Cent Piece”

(by Edgar H. Adams, editor of the magazine [no byline], The Numismatist, March 1913, pp. 130–131)

Through the courtesy of the Hon. George E. Roberts, Director of the United States Mint, we are enabled to show in this number a reproduction of the new five-cent piece, which is now being coined at the mint. It was intended to issue this coin early in February, but it was not until Feb. 17 that regular coinage started, when one press produced them at the rate of 120 per minute.

The design is radically different from that of any five-cent piece that has ever been issued at the Mint, and is slightly concave on both sides, somewhat like the present ten and twenty-dollar pieces. Directly under the figure “3” of the date 1913 on the obverse is the letter “F” for the designer of the piece, James Earl Fraser of New York City. It is said that Mr. Fraser took as a model an Indian of the Cheyenne tribe who recently visited New York City. The bison was modeled after a specimen in the New York Zoological Garden.

Mr. Fraser, the designer, is reported as saying that the capital “F” below the date has met with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, the Director of the Mint, and also the National Art Commission.

Already, it is said, the presence of this tiny letter has aroused a certain amount of criticism, similar to that which greeted the appearance of the letters “V. D. B.” on the Lincoln cent, which resulted in their removal, doing an injustice to Mr. Brenner, its designer, and violating all precedents.

It is to be regretted that the new coin does not show much more finished die work, which could easily have been accomplished. We are inclined to think that the rough finish of the design will encourage counterfeiters, whose handicraft need not now fear comparison which it has met in the past with the ordinarily delicate and finished mint issues.

The new piece certainly has radically changed the old-time tradition that Columbia is our best representation of “liberty.” In view of the rather restricted character of both of the Indian and the buffalo to-day, it is an open question whether either is a good symbol of “liberty.” St. Gaudens, in an interview, once stated that his conception of a symbol of liberty was that of “a leaping boy.”

We still prefer Miss Columbia as the proper representation of freedom, and regret that she does not appear on the new five-cent piece. We have no doubt that the original enlarged model of this design was of a handsome character, but that it would not allow for the great reduction to the size of a five-cent piece is quite apparent. From an artistic point of view no doubt the design is all that it should be, but there is another element to be considered in the making of a coin design, and that is the one of practicability. For instance, the date and the motto are in such obscure figures and letters that the slightest wear will obliterate them beyond understanding.

Altogether the new design emphasizes the absolute necessity of the appointment of a proper committee to pass upon new coin designs. Such a committee should be composed of sculptors, numismatists, and die engravers. One of this committee should be the Chief Engraver of the Mint. It will not be until the appointment of such a committee that we may expect to see a coin that will embody all the proper requisites.

“The New Five-Cent Piece”

(By W.H. De Shon, The Numismatist, May 1913, pp. 239–240)

The new five cent nickel has reached Utica. On the obverse is a most artistically executed head of a Comanche Indian, facing to the right and covering nearly the entire surface of the coin. The head dress presents no suggestion of the war bonnet of the Sioux, which the Buffalo Bill show has led the public to believe is typical of the garb of all American Indians, nor is there any hint of the chaplet of feathers such as appeared on the alleged Indian head of the cent pieces just preceding the Lincoln cent. Instead the head is bare except for two eagle feathers thrust into the hair at the back. A thick lock of hair, bound with a thong, extends to the front of the neck. On the border of the coin opposite the forehead and nose of the Indian is the word “Liberty.” Under the back of the neck is “1913” and under the 3 of this date is a very small letter “F,” the initial of Artist Fraser who designed the coin. Being incused, this initial will remain on the coin until the surface around it is worn away—that is, it will last as long as any part of the raised surface. In some quarters objection has been made to this initial on the same ground that caused the withdrawal of the initials of Victor D. Brenner from the Lincoln cents. The “F” is likely to stay on the coin, however, as there is really no valid objection to its remaining. Many of our coins have borne the initials of their designers, notably the Indian head cent, on a neck ribbon of which was an “L,” the initial of Longacre, the designer.

While the obverse of the new nickel may look more like that of a medal than a coin, there can be no criticism of it from an artistic point of view. The reverse, however, is apparently not so satisfactory. The chief feature is a full length figure of a buffalo, facing left and covering the surface from border to border. To the naked eye the face is very much suggestive of that of a human being, no matter from what point of view it is observed. On the border above the animal is the inscription “United States of America,” and on the border below “Five Cents.” Another inscription that is crowded into the field between the buffalo and “America” is “E Pluribus Unum” in three step-down lines. So crowded are the letters in “Pluribus” and “Unum” that, even under a powerful glass, they are seen to overlap. This fault, together with the fact that the letters are very small will soon reduce the words through wear to mere ridges on the surface. The crowding in of this motto mars the artistic appearance of the reverse. There is no particularly good reason why it should not have been omitted entirely. It first appeared on our coinage when it was put on the first $2.00 gold pieces that were struck. It had previously appeared on some of the State coins, notably the cents of New Jersey. There was no suggestion as to its use, however, in the act of Congress providing for the coinage of money. It is found on one of the half cents, none of the three-cent silver pieces or nickels, and none of the cents until the coming of the Lincoln cent. Outside of the $2.00 piece it did not appear on any of the coins first struck. Later, however, it was put on the reverses of gold and silver coins where it remained for many years. Eventually it disappeared from most of these coins to be returned on those of more recent mintage.

The new nickel, like its predecessor, does not bear the motto “In God We Trust.” It and the 10-cent piece are the only coins of the United States now struck that do not have it. This motto first appeared on the two-cent pieces, coinage of which began in 1864. Subsequently it was put on most of the gold and silver coins. A notable exception was that of the St. Gaudens double eagles and eagles. Those first struck did not bear the motto. Protest having been made, President Roosevelt made answer with some good arguments for the omission, but eventually he yielded and the motto appeared on all of the current gold pieces.

The act of Congress providing for the coinage of money provided that the word “Liberty” should appear on all coins. The provision has been generally carried out. Notable exceptions are the shield nickel five-cent pieces, the three-cent pieces both silver and nickel, the two-cent pieces and the copper-nickel cents struck in 1856, 1857 and 1858.

“More about New Nickel”

(No author credited, The Numismatist, May 1913, pp. 240–241)

No five-cent pieces of the old type have been coined this year. Proofs of the new type are not yet ready to be delivered, although, as no money sent with orders for the coins has been returned, it is inferred that proofs may be issued eventually. There is a possibility, however, that, because of the widespread objection to the new coin, no proofs of it may be struck until changes are made in the design. Heretofore proof nickels have been struck by a hand press from specially prepared dies on burnished planchets. The result was that the field of the coin, which was of considerable area, was given a mirror-like surface. The cents of the Indian head type were struck in the same way. With the advent of the Lincoln cent, however, the brilliant polish of the field disappeared, with the result that, outside of perhaps a clearer impression, there was practically no difference between proofs and the regular cent just issued for circulation. The area of the field of the new nickel is very small because of the size of the Indian head on the obverse and that of the full-length buffalo on the reverse, and what there is of the field has a roughly finished surface that is suggestive of lead rather than of nickel. Moreover, there is a concave surface, the striking of which appears to have forced up the metal along the edge, thus making the coin there so much thicker than that of the old type that it cannot be used in the slot machines now so common. If the field surface of proofs of the new nickels is to be as lacking in brilliancy as is that of the ones issued for circulation, there will be little difference between the two. Possibly, as we have stated, there may be a change in the design of the new coin. There can be nothing, however, in the story going the rounds that the Government will “recall” the coins already issued. The Government cannot repudiate them, nor can it get possession of hundreds of thousands of them already in circulation to destroy them. It can only change the design and issue new coins of that design to circulate with the others, as was done in 1883, when the five-cent piece with the word “cents” was issued instead of the piece without “cents.”

Up to last year the Philadelphia mint was the only one that coined five-cent pieces. Last year coinage of them was begun at the Denver mint. This year the coins will be struck for the first time at the San Francisco mint. As these mints are the only ones now in operation, all the mints of the United States will this year coin both cent and five-cent pieces.

“The Proof Nickels”

(No author credited, The Numismatist, May 1913, p. 241)

Proofs of all denominations of metallic money issued by the United States are struck at the Philadelphia mint, the only one where they are coined. They are sold to persons remitting for them at prices enough higher than their face value to pay for the cost of getting them out. For example, proofs of the minor coins—cent and 5 cents—are sold for 15 cents. Until recently the price was only 8 cents. The coins are struck by hand on a hydraulic press. Up to recently the planchets were burnished until they had a mirror-like surface, which remained on the field of a coin after striking, giving it a brilliant and attractive appearance. When the Lincoln cent was issued, however, a somewhat roughened surface was given to the field, with the result that the former brilliancy was lost, and there was little difference between a proof coin and one just issued for circulation. Proof coins have as a rule been ready for distribution to those ordering them on January 18 of each year. This year, however, because of the change in the design of the nickel, there has been a delay of about two months in getting out the minor proofs. They are at last being received by collectors. The proof of the 5-cent piece is even more unsatisfactory than that of the Lincoln cent. While the lines of the design are finer and struck up more clearly—the wrinkles on the buffalo’s skin, and parts of the Indian’s head, for example—the appearance of the coin is practically the same as that of the one struck for circulation. The surface of the small field is as rough, and the date and letters as liable to wear. There is the same crowding of the letters in the motto, “E Pluribus Unum,” particularly in “Pluribus,” where the “I” is wedged in so tightly between the “R” and the “B” as to be difficult of detection even through a very strong magnifying glass. Although a different die is supposed to have been used in striking these proofs, there is no detectable difference in design between it and that used for the nickels distributed for circulation.

The prediction of numismatical experts that the lead-like appearance of the new nickel, because of the rough surface, would make easy the counterfeiting of it, is already being fulfilled. From Philadelphia comes the report that the slot machines in that city are being flooded with counterfeits. As the danger of getting bogus coins increases, popular objection to the new nickel will be still more pronounced, and may become so strong as to force, before the year ends, some alteration in the design that will make it to conform more satisfactorily with what is of practical necessity in the case of a piece of money of so wide a circulation as the nickel. Satisfactory changes in the design might be as follows: Retain the head of the Cheyenne Indian, which is really an artistic creation, but reduce the size so as to give more field surface to the obverse. Above the head place the word “Liberty” and, underneath, the date in figures as large as those of the old design. If the initial of the designer’s name is retained, let it be incused in the bottom of the Indian’s neck. Eliminate the buffalo from the reverse entirely. Discard also the motto, “E Pluribus Unum,” as there seems to be no good reason why it should appear on any of our coins. Around the upper border place the legend “United States of America;” in the center the figure 5, as appeared on the old shield nickels; and, on the lower border, the word “Cents.” Give the field on both the obverse and reverse a smooth, level surface. A design of this kind would be sufficiently artistic, while there could be no objection to it from a practical point of view.   ❑

 

 

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Comments

  1. Joe M. says

    @ Dustyroads
    1. Looks like rubbed off copper plating.
    2. Capped Die…would like to see if reverse is full strike.
    3. Would need to see in-hand, but possibly anodized or off-metal. Not a dime blank due to full strike(no weakness due to smaller coin blank[planchette].
    4. Struck through grease or weak strike (Another need to see in-hand or extreme close-ups).

  2. Louis Golino, Author says

    Thanks, DBR.

    @joe#2- No word yet on northern sky. I suspect it will be next year.

    @jhawk- I looked at those, but the coin is too big, 90 mm diameter.

  3. Xena says

    I was away this weekend, but my 10 oz came yesterday. Couldn’t wait to open it! It was cocooned nicely in its packaging. What a stunner! Looks amazing!

    Definitely going on display – I think one of those little plate holders (like from Michaels Crafts) will hold it nicely.

    There’s a little cloudiness in a couple spots on the side, don’t have time right now to check out whether it’s coin or capsule.

    It’s about 6 mm give or take – I didn’t take it out of the capsule.

    I also am using the 22 mm with the black ring for the QB. Sounds like that’s the MNB standard.

  4. JARHEADnFLORIDA says

    @Cagcrisp-Macron wins the French election, so what is your guess on precious metals, and the stock market?

  5. cagcrisp says

    @JARHEADnFLORIDA , “Macron wins the French election, what is your guess on precious metals, and the stock market?”

    I think it is GREAT news for the world and a Resounding defeat for populism. For the US stock market, I see little if any effect because you usually buy the rumor and sell the fact. Most polls showed that Macron would win. The Problems would be if Le Pen had won.

    The US stock market is keying off of Proposed tax cuts and Proposed repatriation.

    As for as PM’s is concerned you just have to wonder how much is baked into the cake. Gold is down $60 in the last 14 trading sessions and Silver is down $2.14 in the same 14 trading sessions.

    You have to wonder how much Further you go down or IF you have a dead cat bounce.

    There is a LOT of short interest in both PM’s…

  6. Dustyroads says

    Joe M, I agree that the copper has been rubbed off on the 1st cent, but it’s the only one I have ever seen with this effect. I think it has something to do with it being one of the very first copper coated zink cents produced. The USM began making these in late 1982, and probably had a few failures.
    The die capped cent has a perfect looking reverse.
    The 3rd cent may be anodized as you suggested. I hadn’t thought of that, but likely what it is.
    Thanks for the feedback.

  7. cagcrisp says

    AP Gold fix $1,229.70

    Still in line for Gold drop on Wednesday. Anyone Thinking about buying Gold from the mint needs to wait until Wednesday afternoon. ( There isn’t anything going to Sell Out between now and then)…

  8. cagcrisp says

    47 Jackie Kennedy Gold uncirculated coins left. Even the ONLY FS coin worth owning in the LONG run is having problems selling . Sad…

  9. cagcrisp says

    Above comment. ALL Gold Kennedy coins will be worth owning in the LONG run. John and Jackie.Proof and uncirculated…

  10. Baldwin says

    I don’t see the defeat of Le Pen as a resounding defeat to populism… I see it as a rather liberal country resoundingly defeating a far right candidate… as expected.

  11. Old Big Bird says

    Well here it is May 8th and we still only have a USM product schedule going up to May 17th.
    What about June items????

    Perhaps they will update the product schedule tomorrow if the release the sales numbers

  12. KCSO says

    Any Guesstimates on the sales number for the Douglass Puck?

    From out of left field, I’d have to go with ‘less than the Animal Crackers opener’ at 13,467.

    If it work out that way, Ozark is in big trouble. Same could be said for Rogers at the end of the year.

  13. KCSO says

    In following list below, resides at least that will surpass Volcanoes UNC P as the low mintage wonder..,

    2017
    District of Columbia Frederick Douglass National Historic Site April 3, 2017
    Missouri Ozark National Scenic Riverways June 5, 2017
    New Jersey Ellis Island National Monument (Statue of Liberty) August 28, 2017
    Indiana George Rogers Clark National Historical Park November 13, 2017

    2018
    Michigan Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore TBD 2018
    Wisconsin Apostle Islands National Lakeshore TBD 2018
    Minnesota Voyageurs National Park TBD 2018
    Georgia Cumberland Island National Seashore TBD 2018
    Rhode Island Block Island National Wildlife Refuge TBD 2018

    2019
    Massachusetts Lowell National Historical Park TBD 2019
    CNMI American Memorial Park TBD 2019
    Guam War in the Pacific National Historical Park TBD 2019
    Texas San Antonio Missions National Historical Park TBD 2019
    Idaho Frank Church River of No Return Wilderness TBD 2019

    2020
    American Samoa National Park of American Samoa TBD 2020
    Connecticut Weir Farm National Historic Site TBD 2020
    Virgin Islands Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Preserve TBD 2020
    Vermont Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park TBD 2020
    Kansas Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve TBD 2020

    2021
    Alabama Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site TBD

  14. Baldwin says

    I usually buy the pucks, but I haven’t bought the Douglass Puck… I am sensing a severe lack of enthusiasm for the newer pucks.

  15. joe#2 says

    Cag? The old school is either dead or dying out. It’s a shame folks don’t know who Jackie O was. If the coins were issued in the 1960/s or early 70’s, I’m sure they would have sold out within a week. It’s a sign of the times.

  16. KCSO says

    The lowest two to-date:

    14,978/2012-P Acadia/Maine

    14,863/2012-P Hawaii Volcanoes/Hawaii

  17. KCSO says

    Within the next 36 months, if we were to experience a bit of a run up in Ag prices, then –

    Higher Puck prices + bad designs = anemic enthusiasm

    I’ll be in for Guam, Alabama and Texas, the rest will be a pass..,

    Not sure what you can really do with Kansas, perhaps another ‘bird puck’ or buffalo?

  18. KCSO says

    Current sales from last week –

    2017-P Effigy Mounds Silver Coins 14,373 14,595 222 1.54%
    2016-P Fort Moultrie Silver Coins 16,990 17,022 32 0.19%
    2016-P Theodore Roosevelt Silver Coins* 18,917 18,917 – –
    2016-P Harpers Ferry Silver Coins* 18,896 18,896 – –
    2016-P Cumberland Gap Silver Coins* 18,713 18,713 – –
    2016-P Shawnee Silver Coins* 18,781 18,781 – –

  19. KCSO says

    The QB 10 oz BU Silver piece should be, from a marketing perspective, be called the Puck Killer,

    The last two QB 10 oz I bought over the weeekend I purchased for $191 (check) or $95.5 per 5 oz of silver when compared to an AtB Puck.

    I find value in that. And I’m done in 9 more purchases across 5 years, I like that. With an added benefit of great designs and quality, of a historic theme.

    Done with these pucks. Happy Collecting!

  20. So Krates says

    @ Baldwin – Would you characterize the election taking place on Sunday (as opposed to Tuesday when citizens are at work and school) as “rather liberal” or “far right” ?

  21. cagcrisp says

    @KCSO, IF Douglas P puck is Less than Launch Week sales of Effigy, then that’s a Bad sign going forward. You can make a case for sales being Down for Effigy but IF sales of Douglas are Less than Effigy then the air continues to leak out of the P puck balloon.

    Launch week sales for Effigy were 14,363

    …SO..Anything Less than 14,363 for Douglas would be VERY disappointing.

    We will see tomorrow afternoon (hopefully)…

  22. cagcrisp says

    @Joe#2 “Cag? The old school is either dead or dying out. ”

    Well…I’m not #1 so I guess I’m #2…

  23. Erik H says

    cagcrisp, until silver rallies the “P” versions of the puck will continue to face head winds with the current premiums. At minimum they should reinstate the subscription discount.

  24. cagcrisp says

    Supply side economics argues that “lower marginal tax rates and less regulation” increases growth. You WILL hear this time and time again as we proceed forward with Proposed tax cuts for corporations and Proposed tax cuts for individuals. Cut taxes and “Growth” will make up the Loss in tax revenue. Supply side economics have been championed ever since Arthur Laffer and David Stockman were with Ronald Regan when he was president. George H Bush called supply side economics “voodoo economics”.

    The Mint tried a version of supply side economics with 4 of the 5 “P” pucks in 2014. The first 4 “P” pucks that year had a 10% discount on Subscriptions. No Subscription, no 10% discount.

    Why did the Mint try the 10% discount? The supply side theory would be that Lowering the cost by 10% would create so much demand (growth) that the overall profit margins would Exceed profit margins Before lowering cost.

    Did it work? It failed Miserably from a financial point of view. How Miserably did it fail? It failed So bad that the 10% discount was Stopped Before the 5th “P” puck (Everglades) was released in 2014. Yes there was an increase in Subscription sales, however, profit margins did Not exceed pre discount levels and on the Discontinuing of the discount profit margin level percentages returned to previous levels. Basically it never increased subscriptions on volume enough to offset the loss in revenue by the 10% subscription cut.

    Here are the Mints numismatic net profit margins for the past few years for “Silver coin Products”:

    2016 29.5%
    2015 31.0%
    2014 11.0% This year had the 10% subscription discount for the first 4 “P” pucks
    2013 31.9%
    2012 32.7%
    2011 41.2%

    Compare the Above net profit margins to the Entire 2014 fiscal year that had the 4 “P” pucks that had the 10% subscription and you will see just how much Lowering the “P” pucks by $15.00/each lowered Overall net profit margins.

    In 2014 the “Silver coin Products” numismatic net margin was a measly 11.0%.

    Considering the volume of “P” pucks vs. other silver products and I would argue that the Mint was lucky to break even on “P” puck sales for the 4 “P” pucks sold with a subscription discount in 2014.

    The Mint is currently in Dire Straits for profits…

    …SO…Lowering the price of the “P” pucks will be the last thing the Mint should do…

  25. KCSO says

    Great analysis, I enjoy reading and contemplating this in-depth analysis and perspective!

    Though with respect to, “the Mint was lucky to break even on “P” puck sales for the 4 “P” pucks sold” – the mint brought them upon themselves.

    They own that, and the reason for that is they struck a little over 24,000 Smokey Mountain pucks which sold out within 3 and a half weeks, Arches and Shendoah were also strong sellers that sold out in rapid fire session.

    Had they upped the mintage in anticipation of strong sales due to the discount, which I’m glad that they didn’t, far more P pucks would have been sold, how many more, well that’s open to speculation, though it would have been a lot more in my opinion, therefore they did not anticipate correctly increased sales with a 10% discount incentive.

    Oh well, I got a truck load of great designed Pucks from some awesome parks at a very favorable price.., Win, Win!

  26. KCSO says

    The U.S. Mint need to come to reality, and design and strike a 5 oz American Silver Eagle in Proof,

    In the second year, strike it in High Relief, 2.5″ diameter, enhance that puppy too

  27. KCSO says

    Just out of curiosity, anyone invest in Uranium, and uranium related refining and services here? Either through company stock or ETF’s?

  28. Baldwin says

    @So Krates… when the election took place has no bearing on the facts… France has been and will continue to be a liberal country. Electing Le Pen was not going to happen and I’ve said that all along. It was not a “resounding defeat to populism” as was characterized. Le Pen had little real chance of upsetting the apple cart to begin with.

  29. So Krates says

    @ Baldwin – You are like me during a traffic stop, i.e., you don’t like to answer questions. Since your scared to answer anything I ask, let me do it for you.

    Holding an election on a Sunday, with more access and participation, is liberal.

    Holding an election on a Tuesday, when most work or are in school, is right wing.

    Does it make more sense to hold an election on Sunday or Tuesday?

  30. Louis Golino says

    Regarding France (which I know better than any coins), the election was a resounding victory for Macron, but not a resounding defeat for populism. Le Pen did much better than her father ever did, there were not anywhere near the protests against the far right that there were in previous elections, and if enough voters had abstained or voted blank, she might have won. The victory for Macron unfortunately only pushes pack the populist tide for now. Macron faces a massive uphill battle to succeed, and if he does not, Le Pen and other extremists will be back. At the same time, if Le Pen had won, she too would have faced great difficulty building a coalition and implementing her agenda, and those who think it would somehow have led directly to France leaving the EU, don’t understand France. You can now return to your regular coin programming.

  31. Erik H says

    cagcrisp, what was the price of silver for the first 4 releases of 2014 (I can’t remember)? If it was higher than today’s price then the margin would be greater. I collect and stack. I would rather stack or buy SLV right now than buy a “P” puck. I need motivation to buy a “P”, either a GREAT design or 10% might help.

  32. cagcrisp says

    @Erik H “what was the price of silver for the first 4 releases of 2014 ( I can’t remember)?”

    Great Smoky $19.88
    Shenandoah $19.27
    Arches $19.33
    Great Sand Dunes $18.66

  33. Baldwin says

    @So Krates – I’ll ask what bearing does that information have on the French election? Le Pen was never going to win the election as I said. So your analogy is more liberals voted on Sunday because they had the day off? Lets face it France has lots of time off with short work weeks already…

  34. So Krates says

    Baldwin-How can we have a conversation if you never answer my simple questions?

    Again,

    Does it make more sense to hold an election on Sunday or Tuesday?

  35. Devin Santo says

    The people of this land would do well to remove all references to the foreign and alien ancient pagan goddess mentioned in the 1st 1913 review.

    Having “her” there mentioned with the motto “In God We Trust” leaves one to rightly wonder, in which God/god are “we” trusting?

    DRS

  36. Dennis Tucker says

    I love reading these old first-person commentaries. Interesting insight about “classic” coins that once were newfangled!

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